SUDUT HUKUM | In his book, Kartini Kartono explained that leadership came together with the existence of human civilization; it is since human ancestors were gathered together, work together to maintain the existence of his life challenging the savagery of animals and natural surroundings. Since that happened cooperation among humans and there are elements of leadership.
And I think this statement fits with what is said in the Qur’an, that Adam as the first man on earth was elected as a leader who is obliged to arrange anything around him. They are both the human and natural, which their name have been introduced by God through the angels. In the Qur’an explained that the leader, or rather the caliph (the word used in the Qur’an) is a term plan which will be given to man even before its creation.
Human gets the mandate to be a caliph or a leader because of his capability in thinking, catching and using the symbols of communication (al asma‟a kullaha). Kartini Kartono adds again that at the time, who was appointed to be a leader is the ones most powerful, most intelligent and bravest. For example, Kautilya in his writings “Arthasastra” (321 BC) write characteristics of a designated officer as a leader are:
- Native, born of noble descent
- Healthy, strong, courageous, tenacious
- Intelligent, have a strong memory, intelligent, speaks fluent
- Have a genuine character, with main characteristics: full service, faithful, obedient to the obligations, have pride, solid stance, have enthusiasm, wise, and able to see for ahead.
- Friendly hearted, kind, polite
- Skilled, well trained in the arts
- Have an influence
Thus, leadership that has existed since the first life on Earth indicates that leadership is indispensable in our lives. Let us imagine when the community consisted of a heterogeneous community and no one who can perform tasks as a leader, who was not wealth but the damage occurred. This, the urgent of leadership has been described in the hadith of Prophet that when there are three people who were on their way, let them appoint one of them to become a leader.